Zombie has, I think, the most comprehensive analysis so far of Reuters photo fraud. Zombie proposes a taxonomy according to which there are four separate varieties of photo fraud, with examples of each:
1. Digitally manipulating images after the photographs have been taken.
2. Photographing scenes staged by Hezbollah and presenting the images as if they were of authentic spontaneous news events.
3. Photographers themselves staging scenes or moving objects, and presenting photos of the set-ups as if they were naturally occurring.
4. Giving false or misleading captions to otherwise real photos that were taken at a different time or place.